The Kessariani Monastery
During the XIth century, Byzantium flourished in the arts thanks to the accession to power of an extremely enlightened dynasty, that of the Macedonians (867-1080). As the result of consecutive successful campaigns against various invaders, such as the Russians, the Bulgarians and the Arabs, the Macedonian Emperors managed to restore peace throughout most of the lands governed by Byzantium. With peace thus insured, along with other art forms, architecture experienced a remarquable apogee. During this very period, a series of monasteries were built on the slopes of mount Hymettus. Among them was Asterion Monastery, an exceptionally beautiful building, overlooking Attica from an altitude of 545 meters from a cavity on one of the slopes.
Then, in the Xth century, "St. John of the Hunters", also called the Philosopher`s Monastery, was built on the North side of the mountain. St. John the Theologian's Monastery, at the foot of Ymyttos on the outskirts of Papagou and the Karea Monastery, above Messogia, were also constructed at approximately the same time.
However, the Kaisariani Monastery was the most renowned and the richest of all. There are no written testimonies about it before the Frankish occupation. Its apogee seems to have been between the end of the XIIth century and the beginning of the XIIIth . In 1204, Pope Innocent III submitted Kaisariani Monastery to the jurisdiction of the Latin Archbishop of Athens. When, in 1458, the Turks occupied Attica, Mohamed went to the monastery and, according to Jacob Spon (1675), a French doctor from Lyon, that is where he was given the key to the city.
In 1678, Patriarch Dionysus IV defines the monastery as being "Stavropigiki", that is to say, free and independent of the metropolis: its only obligation was to perform funeral rites. Later on, in 1792, Patriarch Neophytos retracted the monastery`s freedom with a "Bull": it will, once again be under the jurisdiction of the metropolis of Athens. From 1824 onwards, the monastery was "submitted to abject treatment. What had previously been instrumental in enlightening mankind and saving souls, was now being used as a palace for cows, fowl and horses."
During its apogee, it had hosted many significant spiritual figures of the time, such as Theophanis in 1566 and Ioannis Doriano in 1675, the Abbot Izekel Stephanaki, who was knowledgeable in Greek literature and history, and more particularly, Platonic philosophy. From 1722 until 1728, Theophanis Kavallaris taught courses in grammar and sciences there.
Kaisariani Monastery`s library was renowned and most probably owned documents from antiquity`s libraries. According to the demogerontes (the council of elders) of the time, "the manuscripts were sold to the English as membranes whereas the rest of the documents were used in the metropolis` kitchens." During the Turkish siege of Athens, the manuscripts were transported to the Akropolis and were used to ignite fuses.
The fertile surrounding lands belonged to the monastery, as did various other holdings, such as St-John the Baptist, next to the Kaisariani road or those in Anavyssos.
The monk`s income was substantiated by the exploitation of the olive groves, the vines and beehives. In a letter, dated 1209, Michael Hionati reports that "the produce from the beehives was given to the Abbot of Kaisariani Monastery. However, four years later, he complains about not having received any income from the monastery: the Abbot gave, as an excuse that the beehives had been destroyed. The monks were also renowned for concocting medicine from various herbs.
A high wall surrounds the buildings, the catholicon, the refectory, the bathhouse and the cells, so that, even today, they seem quite well protected. In its original design, there were two entrances, the main entrance on the Eastern side and a larger one on the other side.
The monastery was built on the ruins of a lay building. The drawing of Kaisariani Monastery, done in 1745 by a Russian pilgrim named Barski, depicts the following buildings; the catholicon on the Eastern side of the wall around the abbey, the bathhouse on the South side and, bordering it, the monks cells with the Benizelou tower and the refectory in the Western wing. Beside the vegetable garden on the Southwestern side of the monastery, you can see the monks` cemetery and a newer church.
The catholicon and the bathhouse are the original XIth century buildings whereas the narthex and the bell tower as well as St-Anthony`s chapel are additions dated after the Turkish occupation. The buildings are all disposed around a courtyard. The catholicon was on the Eastern side, the refectory and the kitchen, on the Western side and the bathhouse, which was transformed into the monastery`s olive oil extractor during the Turkish rule, and, finally, the monks` cells in front of which there was an open arcade.
The catholicon is dedicated to the Presentation of the Virgin to the Temple and has the basic cross shape, faithful to Greek tradition, according to M. Sotiriou or the semicircular quadripartite according to Anastassios Orlandos.
The entrance of the temple was located on its western side without being separated by a narthex. There was another entrance on the Northern side: with a marble doorstep and a Roman architrave. The narthex, which was surely built before 1602, is a vaulted ceiling with a cupola and lunette in the middle.
The oldest fresco is located on the external Southern wall of the catholicon that now includes St. Anthony`s chapel. It is of a Madonna, turned to the left in prayer. Its sweeping brushstrokes suggest a XIVth century rural technique. The church and the narthex are decorated with frescoes, dating from the Turkish
Occupation. The wealthy Benizelos family subsidized the frescoes, painted in 1682 by Ioannis Ypatos, from the Peloponnese, according to the inscription on the western wall. The cupola represents Christ, Pantokrator. On the bi-partite rosette, are depicted; the preparation of the Throne, the Virgin, Ioannis Prodromos, the angles and a composite fresco of the four Evangelists are represented. On the chapel's lunette, the Virgin Platytera enthroned with angels seated on either side
Although the frescoes do not distinguish themselves with any innovations in fresco technique, they nonetheless remain prototypes of the XVIth century frescoes found in the Mount Athos. During the XVIIth century, frescoes became more and more popular in style and technique. This tendency is clearly illustrated in the narthex`s frescoes. The painter`s will to distance himself from the Cretan school is obvious.
THE BATH HOUSE
Kaisariani`s bathhouse, along with those that have been salvaged in Daphni, Dervenossalessi of Kithairon are examples of XIth century architecture which confirm the belief about monks often using bath houses as anyhow water was used for heating the cells, the refectory etc..
The buildings located on the left of the Eastern entrance, across from the South side of the catholicon encircle a natural source. It is covered by a semi-spherical unvaulted cupola, which is supported by four pendentives. These small pendentives, which support the protective roof, have been destroyed because, as we have previously mentioned, it was transformed into an olive press. The jars, which have been preserved, testifying to this transformation.
The large earthquake of 1981 caused serious damage to parts of the monastery complex, to the bathhouse and the refectory, particularly. Eleven years later, Mrs. Psarouda-Benaki, as Minister of Cultural Affairs, appointed the Philodassiki to administer the restoration of the bath house under the supervision of the First Byzantine and Meta-Byzantine Archeological Service. Before the restoration could be completed, the 1999 earthquake once again interrupted the works, this time for many year
As Minister of Cultural Affairs, Mr. Evangelos Venizelos assigned the implementation of a new study, drafted by the Directory of Byzantine and Meta-Byzantine Monuments of the Ministry of Cultural Affairs to the Philodassiki inasmuch as they would also assume complete financial responsibility for the works. The works were nonetheless resumed, to be again interrupted, indefinitely this time, for technical reasons that had nothing to do with the Philodassiki itself.
The refectory and the kitchen are located in an independent building on the Western side of the wall, across from the catholicon. The refectory is a long rectangular shaped vaulted room, which is subdivided into two spaces. The kitchen on the South side of the refectory is square shaped with a vaulted roof in which there is a chimney. The hearth is in the middle of the room, surrounded by a step, built at the foot of its four walls. The building probably dates from the XVI or the XVIIth century.
The monks` cells, along with Benizelou`s tower, occupy nearly the whole Southern length of the garden.
In cooperation with the Archeological Service, Philodassiki restored the complex of the Holy Monastery of Kaisariani between 1952-1955; the association supervised and funded all of the works. Tassos Margaritof restored the Meta-Byzantine icons it contained
How to get there
How can the visitor reach the forest?
The area can be accessed either by public transport or by private means of transport (car or TACHI, bus, motorbike, bicycle). Residents of the neighboring areas can also reach the forest on foot.
The bus lines that serve the visitors are lines 223 and 224 that terminate at the cemetery of Kaisariani and line 204 that terminates at certain times at the gate of the Saketta camp very close to the monastery of Agios Georgios Koutalas.
The wider area of Kalopoulas is crossed by the central paved road that leads from Kaisariani to Katehaki Avenue and to the Peripheral of Ymittos (and vice versa) and to the top of Ymittos, and for a decade to the area of Papagou-Ag. Paraskevi. This road is the access to the forest, the wider area and the facilities at the top of the mountain (radar, antennas, etc.). In the rest of the area there is a dense network of forest roads.
For passengers of private means of transport, after approaching and parking in the specially designed areas, there is internal movement on foot. All accesses to the forest road network are closed with metal bars. In the wider area there is an extensive network of paths (approx. 9 km long) of small and wide width that provide the possibility of crossing as well as regional transit.